migrate is a simple schema migration tool written in golang. No external dependencies are required (like interpreter, jre), only one platform-specific executable. golang-migrate/migrate

migrate supports several databases, including ClickHouse (support was introduced by @kshvakov).

To store information about migrations state migrate creates one additional table in target database, by default that table is called schema_migrations.


download the migrate executable for your platform and put it to the folder listed in your %PATH.

#wget https://github.com/golang-migrate/migrate/releases/download/v3.2.0/migrate.linux-amd64.tar.gz
wget https://github.com/golang-migrate/migrate/releases/download/v4.14.1/migrate.linux-amd64.tar.gz
tar -xzf migrate.linux-amd64.tar.gz
mkdir -p ~/bin
mv migrate.linux-amd64 ~/bin/migrate
rm migrate.linux-amd64.tar.gz

Sample usage

mkdir migrations
echo 'create table test(id UInt8) Engine = Memory;' > migrations/000001_my_database_init.up.sql
echo 'DROP TABLE test;' > migrations/000001_my_database_init.down.sql

# you can also auto-create file with new migrations with automatic numbering like that:
migrate create -dir migrations -seq -digits 6 -ext sql my_database_init

edit migrations/000001_my_database_init.up.sql & migrations/000001_my_database_init.down.sql

migrate -database 'clickhouse://localhost:9000' -path ./migrations up
1/u my_database_init (6.502974ms)

migrate -database 'clickhouse://localhost:9000' -path ./migrations down
1/d my_database_init (2.164394ms)

# clears the database (use carefully - will not ask any confirmations)
➜ migrate -database 'clickhouse://localhost:9000' -path ./migrations drop

Connection string format


URL Query Description
x-migrations-table Name of the migrations table
database The name of the database to connect to
username The user to sign in as
password The user’s password
host The host to connect to.
port The port to bind to.
secure to use a secure connection (for self-signed also add skip_verify=1)

Replicated / Distributed / Cluster environments

By default migrate create table schema_migrations with the following structure

CREATE TABLE schema_migrations (
  version UInt32,
  dirty UInt8,
  sequence UInt64
) ENGINE = TinyLog

That allows storing version of schema locally.

If you need to use migrate in some multi server environment (replicated / cluster) you should create schema_migrations manually with the same structure and with the appropriate Engine (Replicated / Distributed), otherwise, other servers will not know the version of the DB schema. As an alternative you can force the current version number on another server manually, like that:

migrate -database 'clickhouse://localhost:9000' -path ./migrations force 123456 # force version 123456

Known issues

could not load time location: unknown time zone Europe/Moscow in line 0:

It’s happens due of missing tzdata package in migrate/migrate docker image of golang-migrate. There is 2 possible solutions:

  1. You can build your own golang-migrate image from official with tzdata package.
  2. If you using it as part of your CI you can add installing tzdata package as one of step in CI before using golang-migrate.

Related GitHub issues: https://github.com/golang-migrate/migrate/issues/494 https://github.com/golang-migrate/migrate/issues/201

Using database name in x-migrations-table

  1. Creates table with database.table
  2. When running migrations migrate actually uses database from query settings and encapsulate database.table as table name: ``other_database.`database.table```
Last modified 2021.11.05: Update golang-migrate.md (a5d654d90)